I f make a Top-5 Soviet-era cars, the victory will be there in any case, because in many ways this has been a key vehicle for the automobile industry of our country. Let us remember what was the story of the victory.
According to the official history, launched the project of a new car gave the governmental decree that GAZ was in the midst of war – in February 1943.
However, some sources claim that many of the stylistic and design solutions of the future cars were laid before the war, and by 1943 at GAZ have been formed vision of the post-war range, because it was obvious that the prewar GAZ-M1 need a replacement. So the government instructed, apparently, was only a “go-ahead”, gives the project an official.
Well, it’s time to present the protagonists.
Designing the car led the chief designer of GAZ AA Lipgart. June 16 marks 118 years since the birth of Andrei Alexandrovich. This is a man with a complex fate, talented Soviet designer, developed the 67 experimental designs (cars, trucks, armored cars, tanks), 27 of which later became production models. In particular, he designed “Emku” GAZ-M1, Victory, as well as the six-seater sedan ZIM (after 1957 called the GAZ-12). Lipgart died in 1980, because of not very pleasant circumstances of life having to work on gas, UralZIS- in us by making each of the locations Design a serious contribution. On his tombstone in the cemetery in Moscow Vvedenskoye carved silhouette of Victory.
As chief designer, Lipgart relied on two people: the development of the new car’s chassis supervised AM Krieger and body design was for AN Kirillov. As for the design, the first exploratory sketches, already reflects the concept of the revolutionary “Pontoon” body, performed Valentin Brodsky in 1943, but the final shape of the Victory was born under the pencil of the artist-designer Benjamin Samoilova. With a figure associated Samoilova tragic and even sinister history: in May 1945, immediately after the war, and just a month before the submission of pre-production Stalin Victory Samoilov committed suicide, the circumstances which so far is unclear.
Yes, the author of this great even by today’s standards, the design did not see his creation in the series, having gone from life shortly after the date of the last sketch. It is believed that Samoilov repelled by Opel Kapitan year 1938 appearance, creatively reinterpreting it – in particular by getting rid of the individual protruding wings and combining them vyshtampovki uniform, and as a result turned out the same “pontoon.” But this is true only in the sense that the victory of the whole incorporated many advanced developments of the time.
At the GAZ were this good preconditions at an early design stage: firstly, at the disposal of the design staff was indeed captured Kapitan is, secondly, was an American technology, obtained by the USSR under Lend-Lease, and thirdly, in Gaza in years war, in addition to producing its own jeeps, trucks and armored vehicles, conducted the assembly truck Ford G8T and Chevrolet G7107.
Thus, gazovtsy had a great set of interesting solutions and tried to adapt them to the Russian reality, and the concept of the new car. Luftwaffe still massively bombed the Gorky Automobile Plant (apparently unaware that the legendary T-34 was collected on the nearby “Red Sormovo”), but the plant continued to produce equipment, and somewhere in the depths of the design bureau was born victory.
Photo: GAZ M-20 Pobeda pre-production Photo: GAZ M-20 Pobeda pre-production
His and others’ design
The base body GAZ-20-M is indeed very similar to the Opel Kapitan: according to German “patterns” made the sub-frame, bottom, side members, floor amplifiers, front independent suspension … The rear suspension has been made on who became at that time the standard variant with longitudinal leaf springs and rigid axle beam.
However, strut front suspension, a pivot unit and floor sills at Victory completely original. In the middle and upper zones of the Soviet power the car body also did not look like any known at that time equivalent. That is, as you can see, the original decision was missing.
The body had a smaller height than similar (about 1600 mm), and therefore underestimated line window sills and a floor line. This, in turn, reduced the height of the seat cushions, footrests and refuse to facilitate landing in the car. Due to the presence of an independent front suspension, engine moved forward and down, so the hood line has also become lower.
All these measures have led to a marked reduction in the vehicle’s center of gravity and a positive impact on handling and stability. As a result, the car has received a near-perfect weight distribution (51% of the rear axle, front 49%), acquired (the first time for a domestic car industry!) Normal trunk and a more spacious cabin with less than the “Emka”, width and height of the body.
Nizhneklapannym motor for Victory on the basis of newly mastered unit GAZ-11 was originally a six-cylinder (for a car modification was laid factory index GAZ-25), but on the initiative Liphart four sample has been created, and it is such an option of car is more economical and, therefore, “People”, with factory index GAZ-20 (letter “M” in the model name stands for general use “molotovets”) was approved in a series on the review of the top party leadership in 1945.
Photo: GAZ M-20A Pobeda’1948-58 Photo: GAZ M-20A Pobeda’1948-58
However, after six-cylinder win also produced a series of fine under the symbol M-20G / M-26, but it was a completely different engine, 90 hp of ZIM (GAZ-12). The main well-known now “four” Victory had a volume of 2.1 liters and 50 liters in the return. from. The same engine gave predecessor, “Emka”, but its engine had a volume of 3.5 liters and a lot less modest appetite: Victory was spending 10-11 liters per 100 kilometers, while GAZ-M1 – all 13.
However, until the very Victory, we know it, in the middle of the 1940s was still far away. Development was carried out in the shortest possible time, with constant scolding “from above”, in terms of military and post-war devastation, lack of good metal bodywork and the inability to quickly and, most importantly, quality of development and introduction of a number of nodes.
Needless to say, for exterior and interior laboratory appeared only in the first quarter of 1945 on gas and up to this point and running prototypes were completed Victory models appliances and interior parts of the “unique” received under Lend-Lease. Not the best conditions for the design and implementation in production, as well as an unrealistic “deadline” were to play with the car a cruel joke.
Victory and Stalin
The summer of 1945 the car after comparative tests with several foreign cars was presented to the top of the party and Stalin. In addition, it was at the review “be cut off,” the six-cylinder version, with respect to this event is well known bike on which Generalissimo allegedly heard on your car title – “Homeland” – said the famous “And how do you sell the Motherland?”.
However, as we noted earlier, this story really is regarded as no more than tales: Many sources indicate that the name “Rodina” has never offered in relation to the GAZ-20-M, it figured as a working version of naming the next possible model, but I never voiced outside the plant. However, at the time of the development of the following model options have been other – “Star” and “Volga”, of which, as we know, was chosen second.
Yet the negative portion of the “Great Leader” Designer AA Lipgart in connection with the Victory received. However, this does not happen in the pre-production review of Victory, and much later, when Stalin had already shown the following child Liphart – ZIM (GAZ-12). The fact that the earliest instances of serial Victory suffered a whole bunch of “childhood diseases”, which nearly ruined the reputation of the car on the vine. And on the review of winter, after learning that he designed the man that makes the victory, Stalin reacted to the phrase, “Why are not punished?”. But then nothing happened: ZIM car proved successful and it Lipgart even received the Stalin Prize. That, however, did not save him from further persecution, which was subjected to Lipgart denounced by colleagues.
So what was wrong with the first serial to win?
In view of the short time the car was “raw.” The body was not sufficiently rigid and gave cracked – in fact, on the first victory even burst windscreens. The paint is quickly dimmed and peeled off from the body. Glass doors rattled, windows worked unreliably and door handles broke off. “We landed” spring rear suspension, the engine was prone to detonation and slightly accelerates the car.
Gently pull has been a problem due to the imperfection of the clutch. Rear axle with spiral bevel gears and axle shafts loaded, designed specifically for the Victory, in a move strongly rustled. Minor efficiency found in the muffler and the parking brake. Due to lack of blowing glass and heater glass in cold weather, misting and covered with frost (factory recommended the driver be in possession of a bag of salt and rub her glass), and the nomenclature superiors get the first win as a “sluzhebok” did not like the low roof, hindering sit in a hat or fur cap.
What is talked about domestic cars Nicholas II, who Lenin and Stalin
Nicholas II of our cars most massive – of course, in the pre-revolutionary standards – in Russia at the beginning of the XX century was the car Russo-Balt. brand itself has foreign roots: it was originally a branch of car-building …
In 1946, production was started, but this is largely a formality was required to “meet” in the timeline. In fact, until the end of the year on the bypass technology we gathered a total of 23 machines. Auto so-called “first series”, which had the above-described disadvantages, going until August 1948, there were 1700 pieces produced, after which production was stopped, the director of GAZ’s Ivan Kuzmich Loskutov lost his job, and Lipgart taken under the protection of the Minister of automobile SA . Akopov, was reprimanded.
The construction started quickly refine, and in November of the same 1948 in Gorky began to slowly collect the “second series” Victory, although not all the improvements appeared on it at once.
Work on the bugs
But today the “second series” known as bulk – it is there that used reinforced body, a new parabolic springs, transmission from the winter (replace outdated by GAZ-M1, which had no synchromesh) with shift paddles instead of the floor, upgraded carburetor, increased to 4, 7 to 5.125 axle ratio, the new thermostat and water pump, heater and blower windscreen, a reliable clock in the cabin. A seat cushion is simply made thinner by 5 centimeters to the salon is guaranteed to people placed in high hats …
It is thanks to the emergence of the “second series” The victory went down in history as the, ultra, absolutely “not killed” and practically reference Soviet car.
However, Lipgart believed their offspring forever. In 1948, when the victory more vengeance collected all sorts of “bumps” because of his imperfection, he wrote: “It is my firm belief that the M20 car with the” quartet “is fully consistent with its primary purpose – to replace in the national economy the M1 vehicle. Moreover, I take the liberty to say that in terms of efficiency, quality spring suspension, stability on the road and the testimony of the actual engine in this car is outstanding. ”
Spetsversii and modernization
a little more than 184 000 cars GAZ M-20 Pobeda, including “third series” (GAZ-M-20B) were issued until 1958, which received in 1955 the engine of 52 liters. s., radio in the cabin and the new design of the radiator grille. In addition, the conveyor in Gorky went off about 37 500 copies of the Victory in the form of a taxi (GAZ-M-20A) and about 14,200 sedan convertibles (with hard arcs security on top of the body) on the basis of the Victory. And it was built more than 4600 four-wheel drive car with a body Victory and GAZ-69 car and two race win-us. Small series is going to win with more powerful engines – boosted to 62 liters. from. M-20D and police “catch-up” the above-mentioned M-20G / M-26 with a 90-horsepower engine from the winter.
Photo: GAZ M-20 “Victory” Snowmobile “North” Photo: GAZ M-20 “Victory” Snowmobile “North”
Already in the late 1940s there was a first Victory Vision modernization – it offered a car painter, journalist, writer and designer, now a legendary figure, and then a US officer Yuri Aronovich Dolmatovsky (co-authored with A. Terentiev). Trying to change the rear part of the body to get rid of the lack of the main body fastback sedan – small capacity boot – it was considered at GAZ and fully approved. But the idea of transition to a “pure” of the sedan had not received.
At the same time, the Polish FSO Warszawa, is a licensed copy of the Victory, the shape of the trunk and the rear window, as well as the low side line is very similar to the project Dolmatovski-Terentyev. Well, at the Gorky Automobile Plant Dolmatovski ideas used in the design of the next model – GAZ-21 Volga. But that, as they say, is another story.
The memorable victory
The victory was one of the world’s first mass-produced car with the body of pontoon type – unbelievable but true: the majority of American design studio, who were in the mid-1940s trendsetters, come to this decision only after two or three years after the appearance of the Soviet car. Winning all turned out pretty progressive machine – for example, it was rare in those days 12-volt electrics.
And for the car industry of the Soviet Union is a car and did was a breakthrough, because it is – the first Soviet machine called (yes, before that there were only alphanumeric codes), a monocoque body, trunk (once again, I note that!), Hydraulic brake system and so necessary in the conditions of Russian interior heater.
Its founders believed that a truly modern domestic car is possible, and in the very near future. They believed in a future. And we approach it as they could.