H and the world are still places to which the fold and “Helice”, and Land Cruiser, and “Frontier” and even with Discovery Defender. In fact, in the areas of the man himself – the intruder, who at any moment can disappear. In this scenario, it would be a piece of cake and retreat, but no: puffed up, inventing new devices – a strange, bizarre, but effective. And, as usual, this review focuses on the most remarkable of these “strannohodov”.
Snow, swamps, mud, sand – a large concentration of these substances, turning in a plane, is fatal to anything that weighs more than a few kilos. Where a person fails to head any heavy equipment, including ordinary SUV, the way ordered. There is a fair question: why in such places at all to meddle? It should! – Confidently said Jacob Morret American inventor, patenting in 1868 self-propelled vehicle on the helical track. Soon, the world community has learned many such inventions under the title “screw-propelled vehicle.” Or shnekohod short.
The principle of such movement of the device is simple to indecency, and its design can master even a child. The machine, equipped with multiple (at least two) coaxial rotors, Archimedes screw, moving forward, just start from different gelatinous surfaces. Shnekohod arranged in such a way that does not get bogged down in any of the known science of “suspensions”, neither in the most godforsaken swamp, where the helpless swamp buggies or in the snow with difficult terrain, on which the stopper hovercraft. Even on the water hollow rotors act as floats, making our all-terrain vehicle in the amphibian. Is such a transport can not love?
Rise and Fall of “Blue Bird”: the history of Soviet-terrain vehicles for astronauts
The founder and first director of Special Design Bureau of the plant ZIL Vitaly Andreyevich Grachev – a legendary personality. His SKB many years to develop unique ATVs coming to …
First constructed shnekohod Frenchman D. Peavy from Maine. His car, he did go on steam. Where a greater interest in the US company itself caused Armstead Snow Motor, the peak of activity which occurred in the 20 years of the twentieth century. Industrialists, releases Fordson tractor, also set up the production of conversion kits chassis screw-propelled vehicle. Their cell phones, entitled SnowDevil, intended for delivery to the doctors and mail piled snow Alaska area.
In Russia, where such problem has been particularly acute, the first patent for “screw sledge” authorship F. Derginta registered in 1900. The inventor is very fought for his idea, releasing a set of monographs on the use of all-terrain vehicles, but was not heard by his contemporaries: military conflicts, revolution on the nose – what the hell shnekohody! But during World War II certain officer Johann Radel active PR idea rotary-terrain vehicle, built on a conventional tractor chassis. The prototype has shown himself well in the Tyrolean mountains, Radel and offered to put it on the flow of production.
In the future, such a device seemed Wehrmacht needs: the need was somehow master the snowy Russia after its final defeat. But in 1944 the situation at the front changed radically, as, indeed, and the relevance of the miracle machine Radel. Later, Soviet engineers designed shnekohody themselves, but for the whole history of the USSR were not collected more than a few dozen.
What is the problem of this machine, just all of it constantly refused? Home – in “fear” screw-rotor to a smooth surface. As soon as he felt under a firmament, shnekohod starts walking skid and shaking like an epileptic. Moreover, continuous control of solid veils leads to the destruction and loss of screws their useful properties. Therefore, to be in his element, screw-propelled vehicle needs personal transport and, in the world of big money is considered sverhnaglostyu.
Axis Y – the main enemy for shnekohoda. Of course, it would be possible to make the cab turning the screws and give greater strength, but then the machine would break up the asphalt and other road surfaces. So an independent transport unit shnekohod can not be considered – but they still produce. Profile Dutch manufacture Eco Dredging ltd. I assure you collect a small all-terrain vehicle, and the Australian manufacturer Residue Solutions ready for the 18 weeks to produce rotary screw machine of any size and with any equipment, amelioration of the system to the crane. And since the two offices provide shnekohodami the whole world, so the need is not too great in them.
Truck with low pressure
Wheels for space: the Soviet search and recovery vehicles
The most advanced all-terrain vehicles in the Soviet Union built not for the land army, as one would assume, and for the Air Forces of the country. Since the mid-1960s to the early 90’s design office …
American formation for the production of Albee Rolligon wide low-pressure tires was founded in the 50s of the last century enthusiast Bill Albee. And this original idea lit a scientist is not just so, and during his trip to Alaska, where he gathered material for a series of articles about the North American people.
One day while working with the Eskimos on the coast, Mr. Albee had a chance to witness the technology that later became the basis for all of its production: the boat from a heavy catch, the people did not unload and pulled dry land by placing the bottom of the seal skins, inflated with air. With their help, the fishermen quickly brought his prey to the village, passing all the irregularities of the landscape. This trick Bill called “Eskimo rolls” and for a long time trying to find a use in civilized life.
After 15 years of “wandering” on the Patent Office, Albee one Air Force officer learned that the mobile US Army experienced great difficulties moving on rough roads of Korea, especially in areas where fighting was going on. For fans of “Eskimo rolls” it was just the right thing: he soon moved on to develop a broad low pressure tires and suspension required for them. Having finally subject to production, the company Albee Rolligon was founded, and the Albee got the same patent for his invention.
The prototype, which is built on the basis of Albee its design, turned maneuverable, moderately fast (75 km / h) and economical to maintain. Chassis planted six pneumatic wheel-cylinders with an internal pressure of 0,17-0, 42 kg / m ?, was articulated by separating the cab and truck on the platform. The final could accommodate up to seven tonnes of cargo. Each wheel had its own drive and a special tread for better traction. This ensured the conveyor slip in volatile areas such as sand, snow, swamps and rocky soil, and the width and low pressure wheels did not allow him to dig in the soft ground. At the same time the prototype traction Albee was like a force of caterpillar tractor of the same weight. For farmers Albee Rolligon Transporter was valuable by the fact that the left unscathed valuable fertile soil, which has always killed under the wheels of heavy trucks.
Indicators prototype Bill Albee impressive, but the specifics of the use of such equipment did not promise big profits, although its production was very time-consuming. Attempts to develop a mass product have not been successful, and Albee Rolligon already facing bankruptcy (1960), when the brand bought industrialist John Holland. The new director of the company has focused all its efforts on producing only low pressure wide tires, and everything else left to others. Therefore Albee Rolligon still exists today, collaborating with the titans “shinodeliya” as Pirelli and Bridgestone.
A fun time was in the 1950s! And it’s not even in high-speed fighter and in flight engineering, which allowed to realize the metal everything. What, for instance, the chances of illegal immigrants be seen on US border and Canada’s iron rhinoceros, patrolling the borders? In fact, vast. And yes, I’m talking about this dimension, and the worlds of Star Wars did not even touch.
Stir with a rhinoceros gave Eli Egnides, American inventor of Greek origin. At one time this guy together a good capital by selling his strange but effective ideas to producers. In 1955, for some reason he decided to construct an unusual amphibious vehicles, which could go where boarded the “belly” of any tank. When you have finished all the drawings, Mr. Egnides sent a request to the Ministry of Defense and unexpectedly received approval. Military interested in his idea, but, as always, like to see it in action.
To build a prototype Eli turned to the Marmon-Herrington Company, based in Indianapolis. This manufactory collected public transportation, various bus / trolley / tram, but the strange custom engineer undertook to fulfill exactly – apparently sensing the grand bargain. But the only thing that turned out to be spectacular in this adventure, was a machine. Rather, the creature. Rhinoceros.
With a curb weight of five tons, deaf iron wheel hemispherical shape (each of which weighed 700 kg) monster that still could accelerate to 70 km / h. Low center of gravity of the machine and so strange chassis gives it excellent permeability, allowed to swim and just walk around the walls – even at an inclination of 75? Rhino than tipping. And its appearance is being could scare anyone. That is only the military thought otherwise.
Gresham fighters primarily on wheels – say, one turn of the machine, and throw your Rhino “hoof”. And for him to do the armor – hence deprive of all abilities to the terrain. But it seems to me that they did not like the appearance of the beast. Who in the US Army will take over the service Iron Pokemon ?!
The idea of a bellows Bill Albee already in 1956 went to the people. Then a Richard Marsh filed a patent for a vehicle with an engine Katkov, in which these should have been collected into a single caterpillar. Further experiments in this matter did not go a dreamer, but a prototype of such equipment could get US Navy jointly with the manufacturer of automatic transmissions Borg-Warner Corporation. A prototype called Airoll. Its main advantage was a good cross on extreme terrain including swamps, mud and arable land. Thanks to the original design of the chassis ground pressure was low, and that made it such an effect. At the same time Chrysler V8 engine, which was located behind the cab, could disperse amphibian mass at nine tons to 50 km / h.
In 1965, it was built another prototype. It has turned out slightly above the first and lost three of the rollers 16, the former wheels. Travel on the road 15 thousand kilometers, he finished the test with a rating of “satisfactory”, and based on it began to prepare the production version – the XM-759. This exhibit also slightly dropped in weight (weight – 4.2 tons), but got back their “cut-down” wheel-skating rinks, and even on top of another, the overall number of 17. With dimensions 6,2h2,8 meter machine could carry up to 1.4 tons of cargo or to transport 14 infantrymen in full gear, not counting its own crew (two people). From under the hands of engineers that came true amphibious all-terrain vehicle as to overcome the rise in the 60 ?, lateral inclination of 30 ?, a vertical wall in the moat 0.9 meters and two meters wide.
Became involved in the Vietnam conflict, the Yankees quickly became convinced that they do not have transport to effectively wade through the swamps. ATV XM-759 came in very handy, and has been adopted by the Marine Corps in an amount as much as seven pieces … In the USSR, there was an analogue of this machine, designed by Vitaly Grachev in 1965. The name of this terrain vehicle PKU-1, and was carried on ZiL facilities.
Soul Plane truck
All avant-garde, I, of course, left for dessert. Yes, it’s a truck. But it is not simple, since its creation had a hand in one of the most inadequate avtodizaynerov twentieth century – Luigi Colani! Instead of applause would be relevant here the sound of breaking glass and metal clang, and the maestro should be provided in the electric chair … Stop! I told you that the legacy of this character I start seizures. No more distractions.
Back in 1978 the public, visit the Frankfurt exhibition of trucks, could contemplate Colani Truck 2001 – the first long-haul tractor streamlined, to the creation of a hand in which the maestro. Characteristic features of the exhibits were cabin resembling shark’s muzzle, and wiper all the windshield in the form of a three-beam star brand Mercedes-Benz. The entire cabin is entirely also performed the function of the door, climbing up.
On the surprised looks of journalists Colani replied that became interested in the idea of creating a streamlined silhouette perfect for the truck. And, oddly enough, it was not far from the truth: the drag coefficient of 0.4 Colani Track. For its time it was a record, which has reduced the traditional machines of this class fuel consumption by about a quarter. But manufacturers are not too impressed with the data – still “Truck of the Future” in the first place was a triumph of ugliness so Colani was unable to enter into a contract with anyone.
The next attempt to the commercial success of their trucks Luigi undertook in 1980. To this end, he opened his own studio in Switzerland supersize cars, where in full swing experimenting. The basis for Colani Truck 2002 served as the chassis of the truck Mercedes-Benz 1729. At this time the cabin was a tselnokleeny monocoque, and the main outstanding element was the glass cover. The driver’s door was located in the end of construction. Although not the most powerful engine (.. 240 hp), Colani even managed to block his previous record: Cx this truck was 0.38, the maximum speed – 150 km / h and average fuel consumption on the highway – 26.7 liters / 100 km. But until a contract with the biggest serial manufacturer designer was as far as the moon.
Fished from sponsors some money, Luigi Colani Truck posted a 2002 promotional tour length of 30 thousand kilometers. Industrialists, as before, spinning finger to his temple, looking like the monstrous tractor cuts the flow of vehicles. The only thing that the designer was able to get it to sell its “experimental” car brand Bardush overalls. Tired of the indifference of others, Colani in 1982 went to Japan, leaving an ominous prophecy that one day he will return.
Instead of an epilogue
As you can see, dear reader, the characters of this opus have reached the most hidden corners of the Earth’s crust, but fortunately, there is not accustomed. It seems to me that a second attempt is not far off … Really hated me VIA “Jolly Fellows” sang in her hit “Cars” is really about?